A Bullet Point Guide to All of MTI’s 100+ Mini-Studies

Thus far MTI has conducted 118 Mini-Studies. Below are hyperlinks to the full write ups and bullet points of the findings.

– Rob Shaul, Founder

1 Pound On Your Foot Equals 5 Pounds On Your Back: The 5 Thumb Rules of Hiking

    • One pound on your feet equals five pounds on your back. (1 lb. feet = 5 lb. back)
    • One pound on your feet equals five percent more energy expended.  (lb. ft = 5% more energy)
    • Every one percent of your body weight makes you six seconds slower per mile. (1% BW = +6 sec./mi.)
    • Ten percent grade incline cuts your speed in half. (10% uphill = 1/2 speed)
    • Going up slows you down twice as much as going down speeds you up. Every percent of incline adds 15 seconds to your mile pace. Every percent of decline takes 8 sec. off of your mile pace. (Uphill = +15 sec./mi.; Downhill = -8 sec./mi.)

2018 Rock Climbing Pre-Season cycle Results and Discussion

    • Rock Climbing cycle consisted of a 5-week training cycle with the focus being primarily on strength. 
    • The two rock climb specific exercises used to focus on strength were campus board dynes and campus dead hangs. 
    • Hinge lift and Scotty Bobs were used for general strength progression. 
    • V-Sums were conducted every Monday to assess climber finger and grip strength. 6 of 7 saw a substantial increase in V-Sums over the cycle. 
    • Limitations were levels of Moon Boards being challenging for inexperienced climbers resulting in less significant V-Sum improvement. 

Airsoft Mini-Study result: Better than Dry fire, but not much Traction

    • Assess the affects on airsoft target has on marksmanship.
    • Airsoft and dry fire did not correlate to an increase in marksmanship.
    • Potential limitations from the study that the study was not long enough, not enough lab rats, airsoft target practice protocol flawed. 

Alpinist Fitness Assessment Results 

    • Tests occurred over two days with a psychological testing day 1, and Alpinist Fitness Assessment day 2. 
    • 5 athletes tested four men and one woman, all high level alpinists. 
    • Results shown shown Alpinism requires a wide variety of fitness attributes such as endurance, grip and upper body strength, and aerobic power. 
    • Alpinist Fitness Assessment (AFA) showed a strong measure of the fitness demands for Alpinists based on the scores. 

An Assessment of a Midsize, Urban, Midwestern Fire Department

    • Many fire departments have weak fitness cultures with an inadequate support for fitness and participation in fitness training. 
    • An assessment was conducted for specific research and a Job Task Analysis for the Fire/Rescue Athletes. 
    • The objective was to develop a department specific fitness assessment that creates a functional, job specific training program. 

Are We There Yet? Part 1: Developing A Tool To Estimate Ruck Times

  • Seven factors that effect speed are terrain, load, incline, decline, fitness, weather, tactical situation.
  • Four total “rules” are looked at for being able to estimate travel time
  • Currently working on developing a simple tool for the military and mountain professionals to easily utilize for estimating movement times. 

Arm or Leg Injury? Train the Other Limb to Build Strength in Both

  • Unilateral training studies have found measurable strength gains in untrained limbs, training one limb helps build both. 
  • Neurological adaptations take place in reports of mirroring effects in the unused muscle. 
  • Used Athos EMG to detect electrical activity generated by the muscles
  • Six exercises tested with each exercise using 5 rounds of 30-second intervals. 
  • Research showed an effect to be 7-11% increase in strength.

At Steep Grades Using Trekking Poles is 20% Easier and 10% more Efficient

  • Six athletes used to hike uphill loaded with 40% of their body weight for two days.
  • Two groups utilized, one as the control group without poles and the other using poles for one of the hike days.
  • Distance of hiking path was 1000m with an average grade of 47.4%.
  • Self-selected pace, speed, distance, heart rate, and breathing rate all collected.
  • Trekking poles have a positive effect on uphill efficiency of 10%, uphill movement, and decreased perceived effort of 20%. 

Athena Study Final Review: Process, Final Results, and Next Steps

  • Awareness for the athletes who exhibit knee stability issues.
  • Correction and Progression utilized after understanding how to correct their issues, through the use of drills to become more dynamic. 
  • The drop jump test shows whether an athlete will experience knee dive

The single leg squat test identifies hip strength deficits.

Athena Study: Redefining knee injury prevention training for adolescent female athletes 

  • Female adolescent athletes three times more likely to suffer an ACL tear. 
  • Knee injury reduction plan Athena combines neuromuscular training with resistance training. 
  • Progressions for this plan establish good movement quality, and maintaining trained movement quality while loaded and dynamic conditions.  

Athena: The next evolution of adolescent female training for knee injury risk reduction

  • Purpose of Athena training program increase neuromuscular control by improving or reintegrating basic movement patterns under a range of activities, increase muscular activity, and long-term efficacy of adaptation. 
  • Athena uses a combination of strength and plyometric/agility training that is progressed and scaled to the athlete. 

Do Trekking Poles Make You More Efficient?

  • Four conditions this study wanted to examine were horizontal unloaded movement, horizontal loaded movement, incline unloaded movement, and incline loaded movement. 
  • Pilot study conducted to evaluate experiments format for follow on studies.
  • Based on the research shown tracking poles have little to no impact on outdoor, horizontal, unloaded walking efficiency. 

Does Load Carriage Affect Lactate Threshold (LT) Heart Rate?

  • First battery of tests two unloaded and loaded at 25 pounds. Uphill skinning unloaded, uphill running unloaded, uphill hiking loaded. Results LT heart rate same for both unloaded events. LT heart rate for the loaded event lower than the unloaded events.
  • Second battery of tests consisted of uphill skinning landed, uphill running laded, and uphill hiking unloaded. Load carriage had no significant effect on LT heart rate. Speed of hitting LT changed with loaded LT being 20% slower. 

Dry Fire Mini-Study Results: Either Dry Fire Hurts Marksmanship or We’ve Got Work To Do

  • No significant results on if dry fire improves marksmanship.
  • Limitations included potentially the need for more lab rats, study not long enough, protocol flawed. 

Dryland Ski Cycle Adds Quad Muscle, Cuts Overall Weight from Lab Rats

  • 7-week drylands ski training cycle, emphasis on eccentric leg strength, leg lactate tolerance, chassis integrity, and uphill hiking/skinning endurance. 
  • Average of .6% weight loss
  • Quad muscle average of an increase of 4.3% or 1 inch. 

Endurance Fitness Snapshot of MARSOC Marines

  • Developed the MTI 3/3/3 Military Endurance Assessment 
  • The scores from the Marines validate the assessment and scoring system. Scoring was spread out over a relative curve, showing the assessment is valid. 

Event Nutrition: Candy Bars over Endurance Supplements

  • Analyzed popular supplements in endurance sports and candy bars to see which provided the greatest caloric density per ounce. Caffeine also evaluated as well. 
  • If calories and weight are primary concern consume candy bars and dark chocolate
  • Gus and energy chews are excellent for race nutrition but expensive 
  • Recommended a more complete meal and mixing water with electrolytes 

Firefighter Glove Grip Strength Study and Results

  • Testing the grip strength of three glove brands Holik, Pro-Tech, and Shelby 
  • Grip tested prior with hand dynamometer
  • Three subjects had gloves, while one was bare. All conducted a grip intensive circuit 
  • Not enough evidence to conclude that different gloves make a difference in grip strength. 

Get off your feet, soldier! A first look at three recovery positions and economy of effort

  • Lab rats assigned to one of the recovery positions: standing, kneeling, laying prone. 
  • 30/30 protocol in 25lb vest for 10 minutes
  • Data collection was collected through heart rate monitors 
  • Differences found between HR recovery and repeated performance are linked closer to the individuals fitness rather than the recovery position. 

Jetfoil Deep Dive: Small Canister=22 Meals

  • JetBoil brand fuel not worth the additional cost
  • MSR ISOPRO 8 oz fastest boil time and roughly 10% faster than JetBoil Four Season Mix 3.5

Marksmanship, Stress and Energy Drink-Initial Results

  • Tested non-stressed vs stressed marksmanship. Non-stressed is with kneeling fire, stressed has incorporated shuttle runs then kneeling fire. Stressed drill resulted in large decrease in shooting performance and an increase in HR measures.
  • Tested the effects of energy drink consumption on non-stressed vs stressed marksmanship. Non-stressed drill two of three groups which were double energy drink and no energy drink showed decreases in performance. Stressed drills all three groups showed improvements. 

Mini study finds 1 lb on your feet= 4 lbs on your back for slow hiking pace

  • Body responds to loads the same whether heavier shoe or heavier pack
  • Unless performance is critical shoe weight is not worth the money

Mini Study Results: 2/3 the Volume Programming Achieves the Same Fitness Improvements as a High Volume Programming for a Multi-Modal Training Cycle

  • Aim to test 1/3 less overall training volume was as effective at increasing fitness across multiple variables as a higher training program
  • 4-week cycle with high and low volume groups. 1RM strength assessments and 3-mile run assessments used as markers.
  • Results shown for all athletes. Less overall training volume is a win/win for the athletes and will be investigated further in decreasing the impact on an athlete’s body long term. 

Mini Study Results: Apex Lab Rats Increase Strength, Strength Endurance, Run and Ruck Times

  • Able to increase 1RM strength back squat, max rep push ups and pull ups, 1-mile run and 6-mile ruck time concurrently. In 3.5 week cycle.
  • Tested MTI’s “Apex” fitness standards
  • Five lab rats completed the programming with an improvement in all areas with the exception for one athlete for one event. 

Mini Study Results: Back Squats defeat Dead Lifts and Thrusters to be crowned the “King of Strength Exercises”

  • Compared total body strength to back squat, dead lift, and thruster
  • Back squat lead at increased strength compared to all other exercises
  • Three lab rat groups for 3.5 weeks, 5 days a week of training. Each group had the same strength methodology but utilized the exercise assigned. 
  • Back squat had higher numbers across the board in complete total body strength assessment. This can be due to heavier loads and more overall muscle recruitment that carried for all other exercises. 

MINI STUDY RESULTS: Fewer and shorter (45-minute) training sessions achieved similar results for strength, work capacity, and endurance improvement as more and longer (60-minute) training sessions

  • Fewer and shorter training sessions of 45-minutes achieved similar results for strength, work capacity, and endurance improvement compared to longer 60 minute training sessions. 
  • 4-week study on effects of training volume across strength, sprint-based work capacity, and endurance 
  • Three groups divided into high volume 60 minute session, low volume 60 minute session, high volume 45 minute session.
  • All groups saw improvements over all variables, indicating the 45 minute group is just as effective as the longer sessions. 

Mini Study Results: Heavy Loading, Low Volume Beats Moderate Loading, Moderate Volume for Increasing Strength in Female Athletes

  • Female lab rats divided into two strength groups for a 6-week percentage based strength progression cycle
  • Heavy loading and low volume had greater strength improvements showing that females have greater effects than males with this type of programming

Mini Study Results: High Rep Kettlebell Snatches Maintain General Strength, Increase Work Capacity

  • Three weeks of high rep kettlebell snatches maintained general strength and increased sprint based work capacity.
  • 12 lab rats completed a 3.5 week mini study to test transferability of high repetition kettlebell snatches to max strength, strength endurance, and sprint based work capacity.
  • Results not significant enough to state that high rep kettlebell snatches improve strength, but no strength was lost. 
  • Being a technical exercise and high rep could have led to the lab rats result of only maintain in strength. 

MINI STUDY RESULTS: Hybrid Strength Training Emphasis vs. Running Emphasis to Improve 2-Mile Run Performance Proves Indecisive

  • 3-week mini study designed to compare the improvement in 2-mile run time with individuals training with a run emphasis and those training with a strength emphasis program. 
  • Lap rats in the Army were broken into two groups that focused on either running or strength emphasis.
  • Results were huge improvements for both groups. Leaving the study inconclusive from the spread distributed in both groups. 

Mini Study Results: Improving Heavy Rucking and Upper Body Pulling Strength in Females

  • 11 females completed all components of the study that included rope climbs, pull ups, and rucking.
  • The two protocols use were variable weight ruck plus bodyweight pulling and same weight ruck plus loaded pulling.
  • Improvements ranged from 10-31%.
  • Greater improvement in loaded pull up progression vs bodyweight progression.
  • Both groups similar improvements in 3-mile ruck time at heavy load.
  • Recommend 3 days a week of heavy rucking at either variable or same wight loaded and utilizing a progression of loaded pull-ups. 

Mini Study Results: Lab Rats Following MTI’s Nutritional Guidelines Slightly Outperform Those who Didn’t in Strength and Endurance Gains

  • Lab rats following MTI nutritional guidelines outperform in Big 3 + 5 mile running program
  • Nutritional group 11.98% vs non 9.72% increase in strength. Slight difference in nutritional group out performing in endurance.

Mini Study Results: Post Workout Recovery Shake Has Negligible Effect in Assessed Fitness Improvement for Strength, Work Capacity and Endurance

  • 2 groups one recovery shake and one no shake for 6 week backcountry skiing pre season training cycle
  • All athletes saw improvement 
  • Is recovery shake worth the cost, no. No significant improvement in performance.

Mini Study Results: Rat 6 Narrowly Beats Big 24 and Grizzly Pyramid in Bench Press Progression Mini-Study

  • Compare effectiveness in progression to increase 1RM bench press
  • Rat 6 saw highest improvement but not significant enough to rule out the others, as the assessment was 3.5 weeks.

Mini Study: 3 Weeks of “Big 36” Progression Leads to an average of 9.5% Strength Gains across 5 Exercises

  • 10% strength gain with Big 36 progression in 3 weeks 
  • Simple but aggressive progression
  • 5 classic barbell strength exercises used

Mini Study: 3 Weeks of Big 24 Progression Leads to an average of 8% Strength Gains across 3 Exercises

  • 10% strength gain over 3 strength exercises in 3 weeks. Men more strength gain than women.
  • Training age heavy in article
  • 3RM used heavily with 2RM for total body exercises
  • Endurance intervals used of 1 or 2 mile repeats

Mini Study: 3 Weeks of Extended, Multi-Modal “Grind” Training Sessions Maintain Strength, Work Capacity, Increase Endurance

  • 3 week 5 day 20-40 minute grinds for max strength and sprint work capacity and endurance
  • Grinds maintained strength and work capacity
  • Grinds improved overall endurance
  • Beneficial for athletes that are older or have knee problems

Mini Study: 3 Weeks of MTI’s “Super Squat” Progression Leads to 4.9% Strength Gains

  • 3 week progression fluid periodization training cycle 4.9% strength gain for 2 strength exercises
  • Breath squats used 
  • This would be beneficial for individuals going through assessment and selection 

Mini Study: 3-Week Volume-Based Bodyweight Strength Progression Realizes 17.4% Average Assessment Improvement

  • Volume progression average of 17.4% assessment improvement in hand release push ups, in place lunges, and pull ups
  • Used grinds in circuit format
  • Common with current PFT style training plans

Mini Study: 4 Weeks of the Barbell Complex Leads to Overall Strength Gains in Well Trained Athletes

  • Assessed barbell complex with effects on back squat, bench press, hinge lift 1RM, and max pull ups. 
  • All exercises showed improvement with the highest being bench press at 5.57% and lowest in max pull ups. 
  • Shows barbell complex will build total body strength improvement

Mini Study: 8 Second Dead Hang Work Intervals “May” Outperform 4 Second Dead Hang Work Intervals for Increasing Finger Strength

  • Effectiveness of hang board dead hang intervals to increase finger strength in dead hang for time
  • 4 vs 8 sec with a 1:3 work to rest ratio
  • 8 sec showed higher performance of 28% but limited to small sample size

Mini Study: Backwards Sled Drags Match Forward Sled Drags in Strength and Work Capacity Improvement

  • Sleds can be used to maintain and improve max effort leg strength and sprint based work capacity
  • Forward and backward pull improvement in front squat, hinge, and prone to sprint

Mini Study: Biking Has Little Transfer to Uphill Movement Under Load

  • Lack of effectiveness in correlation, stick more to sport specific training to improve specific fitness
  • Used step ups under load and biking
  • Transferring cycling to step up performance not significant. Improve step ups by doing more step ups

Mini Study: Comparing SCBA Emergency Breathing Techniques

  • Used SCBA with a series of tests
  • Goal to identify the best practice of breathing technique in emergency situation 
  • Success was found in different techniques depending on how the athlete responded. Find one sustainable and works for the athlete. 

Mini Study: Cutting All Sugar Matches Weight Loss From Cutting Most Carbs and Intermittent Fasting, But Performance Gains Suffer

  • Group that cut sugar lost as much weight as no carb group but they lagged in performance 
  • Better performance with the no carb group in 5 out of 7 assessments 
  • Fat and weight loss over performance shown more with no sugar group

Mini Study: Disappointing Results from Explosive Power “Geek Cycle”

  • Showed only an improvement in backwards medicine ball toss of 10% with not much improvement in broad jump, sandbag toss and chase, and 10 yard prone to sprint. 

Mini Study: Dumbbell Strength Training Maintains to Slightly Increases, 1RM Barbell Strength

  • Dumbbell strength slightly increased max effort barbell strength 
  • Increased dumbbell based strength significantly for 8RM
  • Effective training tool for maintaining mx effort for athletes that do not have a barbell or are injured

Mini Study: Effect of Loading on SCBA Duration

  • 6 full time firefighters were tested to identify a best practice breathing technique for emergency situations. 
  • Aim was to determine the best method between air required and air consumed given an amount of work. 
  • Most effective technique could vary from each individual, and for best practice will be the one that balances the efficiency of what the athlete can tolerate. 

Mini Study: Forward Sled Pulls Slightly Increase Leg Strength and Work Capacity

  • Slight increase in leg strength and work capacity in forward sled pull intervals 3 times a week
  • Maintained leg strength more than anything could be used if limited equipment
  • Not much work capacity results

Mini Study: Grease the Groove Beats Density for Push Up & Pull Up Improvement

  • Compared effectiveness of density and grease the groove progressions to improve 75 sec max rep hand release push ups and pull ups
  • Grease the groove outperformed the density in both events
  • Attrition higher in grease the groove potentially from more volume

Mini Study: Heat Loss in Ski Boots

  • Best bang for the buck and keep the heat in ski boots study
  • Toe heaters most cost effective, boot gloves more cost effective in the long run, intuition liners but has extra weight of batteries

Mini Study: Inconclusive Results on the Best Way to Improve Mobility…. Patterning vs. Flexibility vs. Combo

  • 3 exercises to improve overhead squat mobility
  • No exercise stood out as providing better results

Mini Study: Inconclusive Results on Varying Energy Gel Dosage and Carb/Fat/Protein Supplement Recipe Mix for Loaded Event Performance

  • Bets recipe for loaded movement, inconclusive results
  • Needed longer assessment possibly closer to a ruck run for 12 miles

Mini Study: Intermittent Fasting Doesn’t Hasten Weight Loss

  • Same amount of weight lost with fasted group and control group over 3.5 weeks
  • Induced hunger after training shown as the main issue with no benefits


  • Skiing up the same slope with heavy pack of 25 lb showed a 14.8% slower time than with a lighter pack 10lb
  • Objectives should determine what pack load should be used, lighter can be most costly 

Mini Study: Leg Blasters vs. Quadzilla Complex for Strength Gains

  • Leg blaster group showed overall strength improvement over quadrille complexes
  • Simple but effective reinforced for lower body tool

Mini Study: Load Effect on Tactical Shuttle Sprinting Performance

  • Showed the cost of increase in weight of load with finish time of events
  • Train sprinting under load in order to decrease finish time

Mini Study: Loaded Step Ups have Little Transfer to Rucking Speed

  • Investigated transfer of loaded step ups to rucking
  • Questionable transfer of step ups to rucking
  • Worth noting for military in areas where they are unable to train outside for certain periods of the year
  • Potential treadmill work with ruck instead of step ups

Mini Study: Loading Increased Caloric Burn for Uphill Movement 50+ Percent

  • Assess the need for nutritional supplementation from increased caloric demand of a loaded uphill movement 
  • Have protein and carb supplementation in events lasting more than 2 hours

Mini Study: Mixed Pacing Equals Intervals Only for 6-Mile Run Improvement

  • Effect of threshold running and multi pace running both improved 6 mile run times at 7-8%
  • Limitations could be the length of study not being long enough, and other training impacting the running performance

Mini Study: Predicting Overtraining with the CNS Tapping Test

  • CNS tapping test used to detect CNS fatigue
  • Positive correlation between tapping test and CNS fatigue, could help with predicting a potential future injury of an athlete 

Mini Study: Run Time Correlates to Ruck Speed Much Better than Relative Strength

  • Correlation test of relative strength and ruck speed and 6 mile run time and ruck speed
  • 6 mile run time high correlation to rucking speed, while relative strength had small

Mini Study: Short Sprints outperform Heavy Squats and Lunges to Improve 3-Mile Run Times

  • Short sprints of 50,100, ad 200m show better improvement of 3 mile run time vs strength progression of heavy lunges and back squats
  • Compare short sprints to leg blaster for distance running improvement next

Mini Study: Strength Emphasis and Hybrid Programming Beat Endurance Emphasis to Improve Ruck Performance

  • Strength, hybrid group, and endurance groups with both performing a strength assessment, 6 mile ruck, and 6 mile run
  • Strength and hybrid outperformed the endurance group to improve rucking
  • Endurance group showed an equal strength to hybrid group

Mini Study: Stress Decreases Archery Accuracy 23%

  • Stress on archery accuracy found simple stress with small fitness demand and shot time limit decreased performance
  • For the 2 subjects the decrease of accuracy was an average of 23%

Mini Study: Threshold Ruck Intervals Best for Developing Short Distance Rucking Speed

  • Red 400m track at 45#
  • Interval group higher rate of improvement of 8 % compared to 2% of interval and moderate pace group
  • Short distance rucking speed more efficient with intervals

Mini Study: Wildland Firefighters Improve MTI Fitness Assessment Scores An Average of 19% Over 3 Weeks

  • Validated the program design of MTI Wildland Fire Fitness Assessment Training Plan

Mini-Study Bench Press Progression: Classic Pyramid vs. Modified Big 24 Results Inconclusive

  • Both classic and Big 24 saw an average increase in bench press but minor so inconclusive results
  • Might want to try with leg exercises to see if a change

Mini-Study Results: Fully Equipped Beats Limited Equipment Programming for ACFT Improvement

  • Fully equipped improved overall at 6% increase when compared to the limited equipment group of 3%
  • Look at how to improve a limited equipment plan with the lack of trap bar deadlift

Mini-Study Results: Lab Rats Improve 1RM and Bodyweight Strength Concurrently, Scheduling Differences Inconclusive

  • All groups saw 1RM strength and bodyweight strength endurance improvement 
  • Data does not show scheduling advantage 

Mini-Study Results: Lab Rats Increase Power per Bodyweight An Average of 15.7% Following MTI Power-Based Endurance Programming

  • Measured power rather than pace
  • Different percentages per athlete shown in improvement could be lack of power based training

Mini-Study Results: Max effort strength training improves sandbag strength endurance more than sandbag strength endurance training improves max effort strength

  • Max effort more improvements in 1RM back squat and 1RM push press strength and sandbag squat strength endurance. 
  • Sandbag strength endurance saw more improvements in sandbag push press strength endurance.

Mini-Study Results: Performance Impact of MTI’s Nutritional Guidelines Mixed

  • Followed MTI nutritional guidelines with a strength, endurance and work capacity training program
  • Nutritional group saw improvement in pull ups and prone to sprint. Non nutritional group saw a bigger improvement in 1RM front squat
  • Both groups had improvements in 1RM push press and 3 mile run time

Mini-Study Results: Uniform Test Durability

  • Tested uniform durability with different spectrum of metrics. 
  • Crye Precision uniform shown most durable 

Mini-Study: 3 Weeks of a Hybrid Big 24/Density Progression Leads to 9.5% Gain in a 3RM Trap Bar Dead Lift

  • Hybrid big 24 good reference for getting army ACFT trap bar numbers up. Had an increase of 9.5% trap bar dead lift strength increase over the 3.5 weeks

Mini-Study: 357 Strength matches Density Strength in Strength Improvement; Outperforms for Endurance

  • The 367 strength with endurance outperformed in endurance performance in comparison to strength training with endurance 
  • Short work capacity transfers to endurance in this study 

Mini-Study: Density Strength Beats Super Squat Strength, Hinge Lift Beats Swings, Loaded vs. Unloaded Running Inconclusive

  • Density strength progression outperformed super squat progression for the back squat and bench press
  • Hinge lift progression outperformed kettlebell/dumbbell swings to increase 1RM hinge lift
  • Loaded vs unloaded inconclusive on 1.5 mile run time

Mini-Study: Endurance Training Doing Step Ups Does Transfer To Running, but Only Half As Well

  • Test transferability of one mode of endurance to another one
  • Step ups still improved running assessment but not near as much as actually running
  • Sport specificity matters if able

Mini-Study: Lab Rats Average 8% Fight Gone Bad Improvement Following Event-Specific Programming

  • Increase of 8% on fight gone bad WOD
  • Recovery could have been seen as an issue

Mini-Study: Measuring Sleeping Bag Performance

  • 800 fill bag lost more heat than the 650 fill bag over 2 hours at 55.3 and 50.9 degrees F

Mini-Study: Muscle-Ups, Rope Climbs, Peg Boards…Which is Harder?

  • Little difference in HR between movements 
  • Peg board showing most amount of muscle activation with muscle up a close second
  • Pull up conversion chart listed here

Mini-Study: Running Transfers to Rowing Slightly Better than Rowing Transfers to Running

  • Improvements in both modes 
  • Rowing slightly improved running performance, running alone was three times better than rowing 

Moving Uphill, a 10% Grade Cuts your Speed by 1/3…Not 1/2

  • Completed a treadmill test
  • Incline not as dramatic on speed as expected 
  • Toblers hiking function usable conversion for hiking/rucking on inclines

MTI’s Research Project on Fear Inoculation Training

  • Research used to assess and improve fear inoculation training 
  • Helps athletes to be able to perform effectively when in extreme situations 
  • Ideas and progressions listed for fear inoculation training

No Difference Between Squatting and Lunging When Building Athleticism

  • Agility shown even in pro agility and t-agility events between the two assessments 
  • No significant difference in lunge vs squat for strengthen agility building 
  • Lunges would be a preferred choice for the dynamic component 

Operator Ugly and a Snapshot of U.S. Special Operations Soldiers

  • Ugly Operator Fitness Assessment utilized 
  • Shown in the study was the breakdown of score for each group
  • Shown who would score well was athletes with high lower body strength and higher upper body strength 
  • Missing was the ability to differentiate between athlete abilities in the anaerobic event 

Paying More For Lighter Footwear is Not Worth It

  • Change in heavier shoe only increases HR minimally
  • Not worth a lighter show unless needed for marginal gains in performance 

Pinch Grip Correlation Investigation

  • Pinch grip strength endurance did correlate with four finger open hand strength endurance 
  • Variance depends on the type of climber with pinch times and correlations lunge for sport climbers. Trad climbers smaller hang times and less of correlation between he holds.

Plate Carrier Load Bearing Study

  • Crye system better at reducing weight on shoulders
  • Lab rat preference in mystery ranch system despite weight distribution 

Pro Skier hits 8G’s, Burns 2,900 Calories in a day of Resort Skiing

  • Showed physical and psychological demands faced on a modern downhill skier
  • Need to move towards showing athletes physiological responses with more use of technology for data collection

Rock Climbing Exposure Mini Study: How Can We Measure Fear?

  • Data suggests a contribution of fear to HR and HRV
  • Metabolic load plays a factor in having to distinguish between fear

Rock Climbing Exposure Mini Study: How Can we Measure Fear? Part 2

  • Difficult to use HR as a measure due to continued physical effort or CNS reaction to fear causing the increase in HR
  • Not been able to identify an accurate identifier for physiological impact of fear

Ruck Deep Dive – Study #1: Physical Attributes Which Relate to Rucking

  • Physical characteristics shown for performance indicators in rucking in both male and female
  • Utilized ANOVA tests
  • Females performance indicators different than males
  • Females rucking performance usually based on height and weight , with the best predictor being a combination of size and aerobic capacity 
  • Male rucking performance 2 mile times should most predictive in rucking performance 

Ruck Deep Dive – Study #2: Best Ways to Improve Rucking

  • Full recommendations listed in improving rucking performance for both male and females
  • Female firs focus lower body strength (front squat)
  • Males should first train to increase upper body muscular endurance and core strength 
  • Chart depicts individualized classifications for size and fitness level of athlete

Ruck Deep Dive Pilot Study Results

  • Strongest ruck performance associated with high levels of relative strength and a fast 1.5 mile run time
  • Relative strength highly related to bench press, max pull ups, front squat, and 1.5 mile run 

Ruck Deep Dive Study Update

  • High aerobic fitness do well on short hard events
  • High aerobic fitness low bodyweight and relative strength do well for low intensity and extended effort events
  • Relative load important for the athlete 

Shoulder and Back Non-Contact Injuries Most Common in Older Athletes; Knee and Ankle Issues Source of Most Degenerative Problems

  • Summaries listed of individuals who have non contact and degenerative issues
  • Multi modal athletes suffered more non contact injuries than endurance athletes 
  • Degenerative issues being seen with the endurance athletes 

Stress is a Major Contributor to the Physiological Demands of Ice Climbing

  • Used bioharness to access physiological measures while climbing 
  • Found 37% of athletes HR is related to stress in the climb 
  • High demand of physical strength with HRs in 90-95% which does not account for the physiological demands

Study Results: Gore-Tex Not Worth the Cost Based on Breathability Alone

  • Breathable fabrics significant improvement over non-breathable fabrics
  • Baseline sweat rate significant impact on jackets breathability, using HR as a predictor 
  • Jacket pricing not related to the breathability of the jacket 

Study Results: No Easy Answer On Pull-Up Improvement

  • Recommend traditional pull ups over eccentric or weighted pull ups if performing 2 days a week for 5 max sets

Study Results: Power Clean vs. Power Snatch. Which is Better at Creating Speed and Explosiveness?

  • Improvements in vertical jump, pro agility, overhead squat
  • No injury in 6 weeks of training
  • Power snatch and power clean used effectively in novice athletes to increase performance with the power snatch recommend if choosing between the two 

Study Summary: Lighter Trigger Resistance May Offer Cost-Effective Means of Improving Marksmanship Over 15 Yards

  • Lighter trigger pull helps with the surprise anticipated from the recoil
  • Low cost options could help improve marksmanship for distance greater than 15 yards
  • Recommended dry fire and other methods of practice due to limited ability 

Study: Energy Drinks Can Help Maintain Marksmanship Performance

  • Single energy group non stressed best performers 
  • Two energy group out performed the no energy group significantly 
  • Single and double energy group out performed the no energy group during stressed marksmanship
  • Energy drinks had no impact on subjects HR and HRV

Study: Moderate Stress Significantly Impacts Marksmanship

  • Decreased marksmanship shown at 80% of MHR that lead to a decrease in performance of 24.1%
  • Recommendation is to train stressed marksmanship drills

Teton Traverse Nutrition: Part 1

  • Developed a meal plan to meet caloric needs while keeping a pack as light as possible
  • Utilize predicted calorie deficit with recommendations on ratios of macronutrients for the event 
  • Ned to test before trip

Teton Traverse Nutrition: Part 2

  • Full meal plan listed with supplements and hydration methods
  • Can duplicate with other athletes once getting their height, weight, and body fat percentage to customize 

The Best Way to Improve Pull-Ups? Part III – The Results and The Verdict

  • Volume training showed highest improvement in pull ups 
  • Weighted pull ups still relevant but keep the weight lower so reps can still be higher
  • Eccentric training beneficial for athletes with a lower pull up count 

The Best Way to Improve Push-Ups: Mini Study Results

  • Mex effort, interval, and bench press plus interval could be effective 
  • Need more time and more lab rats 
  • Bench press only proved to be least effective 

The Effect of Ruck Weight on Speed – from 0% to 70% of Body Weight

  • 1% BW adds 6 seconds per mile
  • Linear relationship between load and speed, but only up to about 40% BW
  • Speed drastically affected by additional weight when over 40% of BW carried with gait affected at 50%
  • MTI loaded speed equation listed 

The MTI 15/15 Shuttle Beep Test for Measuring VO2 Max

  • MTI hustle bee test protocol listed
  • MTI test has correlation of .90 which is higher than most studies 
  • Great for testing with minimal space and simple design  

The MTI Route Card – Estimating Rucking and Hiking Times

  • Shows how to use the MTI route card. 
  • Great reference 

The MTI Route Card – Initial Results, Lab Rats Needed

  • Helps athletes estimate the time it will take them to complete a ruck, hike, or mission 

The True Impact of a Summer Guiding Season

  • Guides need to take their season very serious as far as pre season training, with in season, and off season training 
  • Establish a strong foundation in season with aerobic capacity 
  • In season mobility and flexibility work with monitoring neutron and rest

Trigger Pull Study – Initial Findings

  • Longer distanced of 50 and 100 yards an improvement of 15% with light triggers compared to the control group that improved 8%

Uniform Comparison Study: Army Combat Uniform

  • Shirt is uncomfortable and not functional
  • Pants is comfortable but possibly too loose fit with the snag and tripping shown
  • Might need to tailor the waist rather than only using a belt for small soldiers

Uniform Comparison Study: Crye Precision GS (Fire Resistant) – Week 1

  • Durable long lasting uniform, comfort lacking
  • Not ideał for dessert or jungle with lack of breathability  

Uniform Comparison Study: Evaluating Fit

  • Crye pants and leaf shirt best fit across the board for different sized men 

Valor Update: Lab Rats Increase Strength and Ruck, Run, Speed over Ground

  • 10 lab rats full 7 week 5 day study
  • 12.9% increase in barbell complex strength 
  • 14.1% increase in 3 mile ruck at 45#
  • 3.3% improvement in 1.5 mile run
  • Lagging would be the 1.5 mile run time in comparison to the percentage gains in the other areas. Potentially move around certain days if ruck is hindering performance. 

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